Picture Framing Online: Things To Know

When you look deeper into a picture once clicked by you, you will understand that a frame alone can bring drastic changes to the otherwise simple photograph. Choose frames very selectively, as they hold the power to entirely transform an ordinary picture into something spectacular and out of the world. Picture framing online has changed the very definition of frames and photographs. Internet has made online shopping easy, simple and affordable. So, if you are looking for custom picture frames in the most competitive prices then you must scroll through the online websites filled with striking frames and related details.

Shopping is fun anytime, whatever you are looking for. Buying online photo frames has become a latest trend that youngsters like to follow in order to make their home look warm and gorgeous. Vibrant frames on walls and nooks and corners instantly lift up the moods of the people living there. So, what you have to do is look for online deals near your area and grab the most suitable offer. Though youngsters are the ones who are mostly attracted to the frames, people from all age groups can shop for frames to glam up their boring home dcor. The ones who are living away from home can get homesick and want to decorate a corner of their new house with customised photo frames, so for them here is some really great news!

Picture framing online websites are awesome to look for fabulous set of frames of all designs and shapes. In these online sites, you will find a huge collection with budget. Even you can customise a frame for yourself on for someone whom you want to gift one. With just a quick search, you will come to discover thousands and thousands online framing service providers who excels in selling a variety of stunning frames within budget range. If you want, you can also directly communicate with the reputable company’s framing designers to get customised packages.
When it comes to frames, you can choose larger ones or the smaller ones. The large frames are mostly needed for big family photographs. Suppose, the photograph that you have is above 18″ by 18″ then it is will be better to consider a larger frame. By going with a smaller frame, you will simply ruin the entire picture and thus the wall dcor. Now, when you have a smaller version of a picture then you can easily look for smaller frames that cost considerably lesser. A smaller picture doesn’t need a larger frame, so depending on the picture size, you must choose the frames.
If you are sceptical to rely on a particular custom picture frames online company then ask friends and family to recommend companies from where they have previously bought services. Or read the testimonials and review sections to get an idea of the company with which you are dealing.

Computer Forensic Examiner Uncovers Digital Evidence Of Criminal Activity

Computer Forensics now aid in solving crimes

We now live in a digital age where the computer permeates almost every aspect of our lives. Almost all transactions and records of our activities are now recorded electronically. Unfortunately, the digital era has also ushered in an age of digital crime.

Computer forensics involves searching computers for evidence of crime and also for evidence in traditional crimes. Some examples of cybercrime include hacking, releasing viruses and various internet scams such as phishing or spoofing of real web sites.

The specialists who uncover digital evidence of criminal activity and assists in presenting evidence are called Computer Forensics specialists or Computer Forensic examiners. The Forensic Specialist is an expert on retrieving lost hidden or deleted information on any electronic device. These specialists may be employed by the government, in law enforcement or in private practice.

This type of forensics is basically a multiform process that includes many complex steps. The first part in the process includes investigation of computer data to uncover evidence of criminal activities. The second part involves analyzing and using the evidence found in the computer, either in or out of court.

Computer Forensics examiners are usually well qualified.

Both civil and criminal proceedings often make use of evidence, provided by computer forensic examiners who may be hired in diverse areas.

Law enforcement: Assistance is usually provided in the handling of seized computer equipment

Criminal Prosecution: Computer evidence is used in a variety of cases where incriminating documents can be found such child pornography,homicides, financial fraud and embezzlement.

Insurance companies: Forensic Specialists may be used to uncover evidence of false accident, workman`s compensation claims and arson.

Corporations: Forensics specialists are hired to search employee computers for records of sexual harassment,embezzlement or theft of trade secrets.

Employees may also hire forensic examiners to support claims of wrongful dismissal or age discrimination.

Computer Forensics is quite different from other forensics disciplines, and knowledge of other fields are often required. In addition to being impartial, a computer forensic examiner will typically have a wide range of experience with various types of hardware and software. The specialist should also have the required skill to search a computer thoroughly enough to access deleted, encrypted and password protected files and other forms of hidden evidence. Additionally, the forensic examiner should be familiar with hardware architecture to know where on the computer to look for the most relevant data. In addition, since most computers are networked in industrial environments, the specialist should also have knowledge of network architecture.

Forensic examiners can perform either on-site inspections of the computer or laboratory inspections of seized equipment. The most crucial step is making sure that all files are copied. Searching computer files may sometimes alter or even destroy data, and integrity of all data should be preserved to allow for admissibility in courts.

Special training for computer forensics is available

It is essential for forensic technicians to have extensive knowledge of computer operating systems, including models and systems no longer in use. Whether your interest lies in capturing criminals or in the technical challenges of computer searches, a career in computer forensics can be very fulfilling and very rewarding.

Computers are now permeating all aspect of our lives and the essential use now creates avenue for crime.Computer forensics examiners are also essential in exposed hidden digital trails.

Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics

Introduction
Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital information in a way that is legally admissible. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics has comparable examination stages to other forensic disciplines and faces similar issues.

About this guide
This guide discusses computer forensics from a neutral perspective. It is not linked to particular legislation or intended to promote a particular company or product and is not written in bias of either law enforcement or commercial computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical audience and provides a high-level view of computer forensics. This guide uses the term “computer”, but the concepts apply to any device capable of storing digital information. Where methodologies have been mentioned they are provided as examples only and do not constitute recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the whole or part of this article is licensed solely under the terms of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license

Uses of computer forensics
There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field. Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [ 1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking. It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘meta-data’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

Intellectual Property theft
Industrial espionage
Employment disputes
Fraud investigations
Forgeries
Matrimonial issues
Bankruptcy investigations
Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
Regulatory compliance

Guidelines
For evidence to be admissible it must be reliable and not prejudicial, meaning that at all stages of this process admissibility should be at the forefront of a computer forensic examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been widely accepted to assist in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Practice Guide for Computer Based Electronic Evidence or ACPO Guide for short. Although the ACPO Guide is aimed at United Kingdom law enforcement its main principles are applicable to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four main principles from this guide have been reproduced below (with references to law enforcement removed):

No action should change data held on a computer or storage media which may be subsequently relied upon in court.

In circumstances where a person finds it necessary to access original data held on a computer or storage media, that person must be competent to do so and be able to give evidence explaining the relevance and the implications of their actions.

An audit trail or other record of all processes applied to computer-based electronic evidence should be created and preserved. An independent third-party should be able to examine those processes and achieve the same result.

The person in charge of the investigation has overall responsibility for ensuring that the law and these principles are adhered to.

In summary, no changes should be made to the original, however if access/changes are necessary the examiner must know what they are doing and to record their actions.

Live acquisition
Principle 2 above may raise the question: In what situation would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer forensic examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer forensic examiner would make a copy (or acquire) information from a device which is turned off. A write-blocker[4] would be used to make an exact bit for bit copy [5] of the original storage medium. The examiner would work then from this copy, leaving the original demonstrably unchanged.

However, sometimes it is not possible or desirable to switch a computer off. It may not be possible to switch a computer off if doing so would result in considerable financial or other loss for the owner. It may not be desirable to switch a computer off if doing so would mean that potentially valuable evidence may be lost. In both these circumstances the computer forensic examiner would need to carry out a ‘live acquisition’ which would involve running a small program on the suspect computer in order to copy (or acquire) the data to the examiner’s hard drive.

By running such a program and attaching a destination drive to the suspect computer, the examiner will make changes and/or additions to the state of the computer which were not present before his actions. Such actions would remain admissible as long as the examiner recorded their actions, was aware of their impact and was able to explain their actions.

Stages of an examination
For the purposes of this article the computer forensic examination process has been divided into six stages. Although they are presented in their usual chronological order, it is necessary during an examination to be flexible. For example, during the analysis stage the examiner may find a new lead which would warrant further computers being examined and would mean a return to the evaluation stage.

Readiness
Forensic readiness is an important and occasionally overlooked stage in the examination process. In commercial computer forensics it can include educating clients about system preparedness; for example, forensic examinations will provide stronger evidence if a server or computer’s built-in auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are many areas where prior organisation can help, including training, regular testing and verification of software and equipment, familiarity with legislation, dealing with unexpected issues (e.g., what to do if child pornography is present during a commercial job) and ensuring that your on-site acquisition kit is complete and in working order.

Evaluation
The evaluation stage includes the receiving of clear instructions, risk analysis and allocation of roles and resources. Risk analysis for law enforcement may include an assessment on the likelihood of physical threat on entering a suspect’s property and how best to deal with it. Commercial organisations also need to be aware of health and safety issues, while their evaluation would also cover reputational and financial risks on accepting a particular project.

Collection
The main part of the collection stage, acquisition, has been introduced above. If acquisition is to be carried out on-site rather than in a computer forensic laboratory then this stage would include identifying, securing and documenting the scene. Interviews or meetings with personnel who may hold information which could be relevant to the examination (which could include the end users of the computer, and the manager and person responsible for providing computer services) would usually be carried out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ audit trail would start here by sealing any materials in unique tamper-evident bags. Consideration also needs to be given to securely and safely transporting the material to the examiner’s laboratory.

Analysis
Analysis depends on the specifics of each job. The examiner usually provides feedback to the client during analysis and from this dialogue the analysis may take a different path or be narrowed to specific areas. Analysis must be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed within the time-scales available and resources allocated. There are myriad tools available for computer forensics analysis. It is our opinion that the examiner should use any tool they feel comfortable with as long as they can justify their choice. The main requirements of a computer forensic tool is that it does what it is meant to do and the only way for examiners to be sure of this is for them to regularly test and calibrate the tools they use before analysis takes place. Dual-tool verification can confirm result integrity during analysis (if with tool ‘A’ the examiner finds artefact ‘X’ at location ‘Y’, then tool ‘B’ should replicate these results.)

Presentation
This stage usually involves the examiner producing a structured report on their findings, addressing the points in the initial instructions along with any subsequent instructions. It would also cover any other information which the examiner deems relevant to the investigation. The report must be written with the end reader in mind; in many cases the reader of the report will be non-technical, so the terminology should acknowledge this. The examiner should also be prepared to participate in meetings or telephone conferences to discuss and elaborate on the report.

Review
Along with the readiness stage, the review stage is often overlooked or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of doing work that is not billable, or the need ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a review stage incorporated into each examination can help save money and raise the level of quality by making future examinations more efficient and time effective. A review of an examination can be simple, quick and can begin during any of the above stages. It may include a basic ‘what went wrong and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went well and how can it be incorporated into future examinations’. Feedback from the instructing party should also be sought. Any lessons learnt from this stage should be applied to the next examination and fed into the readiness stage.

Issues facing computer forensics
The issues facing computer forensics examiners can be broken down into three broad categories: technical, legal and administrative.

Encryption – Encrypted files or hard drives can be impossible for investigators to view without the correct key or password. Examiners should consider that the key or password may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. It could also reside in the volatile memory of a computer (known as RAM [6] which is usually lost on computer shut-down; another reason to consider using live acquisition techniques as outlined above.

Increasing storage space – Storage media holds ever greater amounts of data which for the examiner means that their analysis computers need to have sufficient processing power and available storage to efficiently deal with searching and analysing enormous amounts of data.

New technologies – Computing is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems being constantly produced. No single computer forensic examiner can be an expert on all areas, though they may frequently be expected to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In order to deal with this situation, the examiner should be prepared and able to test and experiment with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and sharing knowledge with other computer forensic examiners is also very useful in this respect as it’s likely someone else may have already encountered the same issue.

Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the practice of attempting to thwart computer forensic analysis. This may include encryption, the over-writing of data to make it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and file obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the evidence that such methods have been used may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. In our experience, it is very rare to see anti-forensics tools used correctly and frequently enough to totally obscure either their presence or the presence of the evidence they were used to hide.

Legal issues
Legal arguments may confuse or distract from a computer examiner’s findings. An example here would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a piece of computer code disguised as something benign but which has a hidden and malicious purpose. Trojans have many uses, and include key-logging [7], uploading and downloading of files and installation of viruses. A lawyer may be able to argue that actions on a computer were not carried out by a user but were automated by a Trojan without the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been successfully used even when no trace of a Trojan or other malicious code was found on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with evidence from a competent computer forensic analyst, should be able to dismiss such an argument.

Accepted standards – There are a plethora of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which appear to be universally accepted. This is due to a number of reasons including standard-setting bodies being tied to particular legislations, standards being aimed either at law enforcement or commercial forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not being accepted by their peers, or high joining fees dissuading practitioners from participating.

Fitness to practice – In many jurisdictions there is no qualifying body to check the competence and integrity of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer forensic expert, which may result in computer forensic examinations of questionable quality and a negative view of the profession as a whole.